There are generally five types of niobium deposits, namely granite Pegmatite, Alkali feldspar granite, weathering crust, primary tantalum niobium and river placer deposits. Tantalum niobium ore is mainly accompanied by lithium, niobium, zirconium, tin, niobium, etc. Placer deposits are often accompanied by monazite, cassiterite, Rutile, Ilmenite, zircon, feldspar, quartz, precious stones, jade and colored stones, which should be recycled. The density of tantalum niobium minerals is usually 5500kg/m, and the density of gangue minerals is generally above 2700 kg/m. The difficulty of separating minerals according to the ratio is greater than 2.5. Therefore, the gravity separation method is easy to classify tantalum niobium minerals. The gravity separation method is the preferred method for determining the tantalum niobium beneficiation method. For tantalum niobium ore that is difficult to effectively select and recover, such as the particularly complex tantalum niobium ore composed of minerals, tantalum niobium ore with extremely fine embedded particle size, and tantalum niobium ore fine mud, it can be considered to supplement flotation, electromagnetic selection, and hydrometallurgy methods appropriately on the basis of gravity beneficiation methods.
Tantalum niobium ore is a rare metal mineral resource with low ore content. High quality tantalum niobium ore concentrate is generally obtained through rough selection, selection, and other separation processes. Tantalum niobium ore rough selection generally uses gravity separation method, because tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment has low investment, low cost, and high efficiency, it is very suitable for the pre selection and enrichment of this low-grade mineral.
Tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment is a beneficiation equipment that forms suitable loose layering and separation conditions based on different mineral densities or particles, in order to obtain tantalum niobium concentrate products with different densities or particle sizes. Tantalum niobium ore gravity separation can be divided into heavy medium selection, skip selection, shaking table selection, chute selection, centrifugal selection, etc. Based on the actual situation of the ore and the user's selection requirements, our professional beneficiation design engineers will design reasonable production processes and recommend suitable gravity separation equipment.
Classification of skip machines for tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment: Hydraulic skip machines can be divided into:
(1) Piston jump machine
(2) Diaphragm jumping machine
(3) Air pulsation jumping machine
(4) Hydraulic pulsation jumping machine
(5) Moving screen skip machine.
Tantalum niobium ore gravity concentration plants generally use diaphragm skip machines for selection. Diaphragm jump machines can be divided into the following categories: upper (side) dynamic diaphragm jump machines, lower dynamic diaphragm jump machines, side acting diaphragm jump machines. 2. Side acting and side acting jump machine structures. Side acting diaphragm jump machines. Side acting diaphragm jump machines. Eccentric transmission mechanisms; 2. - Diaphragm; 3-pyramid box; 4-partition; 5- Jigging chamber; 6-sieve plate; 7- Diaphragm chamber; 8-connecting rod side moving diaphragm jumping machine 11-transmission box; 2-diaphragm; 3- Hand wheel; 4- Under the sieve of the concentrate discharge pipe; 5. - Rack; 6- Jigging chamber; 7-Wedge box; The speed and direction of water flow in the 8-sieve plate jumping machine are periodic, known as pulsating water flow. Each cycle of pulsating water is called a jumping cycle. The relationship between water flow velocity and time variation within a cycle is called a jump period curve. The maximum displacement of water flow up and down in the jumping chamber, in millimeters. The number of cycles of water flow per minute is called the impulse, in units of times per minute. Working principle diagram of piston jumping machine 1- piston chamber; 2- Jigging chamber; 3-sieve plate; 4- Eccentric wheel; 5-connecting rod; 6-piston; 7- Water inlet pipe 3. Working principle: The selected material enters the skip machine sieve plate, forming a dense material layer called the bed layer. At the same time as feeding, the material is sorted by alternating water flow from the lower part of the skip machine through a sieve plate cycle, and under the action of the water flow, the material is sorted. (1) Under the action of rising water flow, the bed gradually loosens and suspends. At this point, the mineral particles in the bed are layered with each other based on their own characteristics (density, particle size, and shape).
The working process of the skip machine is the layering process of ore particles during the skip (a) The material is mixed and stacked before layering; (b) Upward hydraulic support bed; (c) Sedimentation and stratification of particles in water flow; (d) The water flow decreases, the bed layer is dense, and heavy minerals enter the bottom layer. The layering process when the ore particles jump (a) The material is mixed and piled up before layering; (b) Upward hydraulic support bed; (c) Sedimentation and stratification of particles in water flow; (d) The water flow decreases, the bed layer becomes dense, and heavy minerals enter the bottom layer. (2) The bed layer gradually becomes dense and continues to be layered according to density and particle size. Mineral particles settle on the screen surface, the bed returns to a tight state, and Almost all layering effects stop. Only those very fine mineral particles can continue to move downwards through the gaps in the bed layer (this movement of fine particles is called borehole gap movement) and continue to layer. (3) After the water flow drops, stratification temporarily terminates, completing a life cycle of stratification process. The layering process of materials during their lifecycle is shown in the figure.
(1) The characteristics of the bypass diaphragm survival machine:
Advantages: High productivity per unit area (2-3 times larger than other types); The water flow is uniform, the bed layer is stable, and the concentrate on the screen is easy to discharge; The upper transmission mechanism and diaphragm facilitate maintenance and management; Large stroke, large stroke coefficient (ratio of diaphragm area to sieve plate area), and wide particle size range. Disadvantages: Small effective area, small platform processing capacity, and large unit area.
(2) The advantages of the side moving diaphragm jumping machine are: simple structure, reliable operation, and convenient management; Encourage diaphragms to be easy to load, unload, and maintain, with a long service life; The transmission mechanism is sealed, safe and easy to adjust; The stroke and stroke coefficient are large, and each room can be adjusted separately, suitable for sorting materials of various particle sizes; Choose good indicators (processing capacity, recovery rate, water consumption) Factors affecting the Jump process 1) Stroke s, stroke n and stroke have a great impact on the loose stratification of the bed. The different strokes lead to different water flow characteristics and time and space conditions for loose penetration. Generally speaking, the selection of coarse grained materials should choose between large stroke and small stroke; The selection of fine-grained materials should use small stroke and large stroke. The appropriate stroke and stroke should be adjusted through experiments. 2. Supplement water (1) Supplement the water consumption for tailings discharge; (2) The bed looseness can be adjusted to reduce the suction of excessive water flow and control the quantity and quality of concentrate discharged under the screen. 3) The properties of the bed layer and the thickness of the constituent bed layer mainly affect the degree of looseness and the layering speed of mineral particles. To accelerate the layering speed and improve production capacity, thin bed layers should be used; When the quality requirements of the concentrate are high, a thick bed should be used.
Tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment slide dressing
1、 Overview: Chute beneficiation is a gravity separation method that utilizes the differences in the movement status of ore particles in inclined water flow for beneficiation. The theoretical basis is the motion law of mineral particles in inclined water flow. Current sorting granularity> The coarse grain chute made of 1mm material has gradually been replaced by other methods and is widely used for processing 1-0.074mm ore sand chutes and several tens of micrometers or less of ore mud chutes.
2、 The principle and process of chute beneficiation is the process of using inclined water flow for separation. Generally, the slope of the groove surface is 3-4, not exceeding 6. Under the impact of water flow, the gravity of mineral particles, centrifugal force, and frictional force, mineral particles are layered proportionally (as shown in the figure). Because the velocity distribution of water flow in the trough is large, the lower layer is small; 1. Larger mineral particles are concentrated in the lower layer, and are subject to smaller water flow impacts and larger groove bottom friction, slowly moving forward along the groove bottom Smaller mineral particles are concentrated in the upper layer and carried by the water flow at a faster rate. Then, two different proportions of product concentrates and tailings can be obtained through stratified interception. Generally, the slurry tank will follow the above rules, forming a slurry layer with different flow rates, concentrations, and properties on the tank surface. The top layer is a diluted surface flow layer, which only contains small density mineral particles; This layer has a thin concentration and the maximum flow rate. Mineral particles cannot settle to the bottom, but directly flow out of the tank as tailings. The lowest layer is a sedimentary layer, which concentrates most of the high-density mineral particles; This layer has high concentration, low flow rate, and even stays on the groove surface. It is collected as concentrate. The middle is a concentrated suspension layer, located between the two layers mentioned above. It plays an important role in the sorting process. 3. There are various types of chute beneficiation equipment: coarse grain chute (gold, tungsten, tin, and other minerals) slime chute (road chute, average slot) belt chute fan-shaped chute, conical concentrator spiral concentrator, spiral chute centrifugal chute (1) spiral concentrator 1. Structure: gravity centrifugal force combined chute concentrator (Figure) is composed of main components such as spiral groove, frame, cutter, flushing pipe, etc. Spiral concentrator 1- feed tank; 2- Washing water pipe; 3- Spiral groove; 4- Connecting the flange of the groove section; 5. - Concentrate export; 6-ore discharge tank; 7-rack; 8-cutter; 9- Washing water valve 2. Separation principle and process: When a certain concentration of slurry enters the upper part of the spiral separator, under the action of gravity and centrifugal force, the slurry rotates downward along the spiral groove. Heavy ore particles first sink into the bottom of the trough, while small ore particles flow in the upper layer of the slurry. Figure Spiral sorting machine Figure Cross section distribution of ore particles in the chute 1. High density fine particles; 2. High density coarse particles; 3. Small density fine particles; 4. Small density coarse particles; 5. The large proportion of ore particles that sink into the bottom of the groove are close to the inner edge of the groove during movement due to small water flow impact, high friction, low velocity along the groove, and low centrifugal force. Due to the high water flow velocity in the upper layer, the flow velocity along the groove is high, and the centrifugal force is high, close to the outer edge of the groove. In this way, different proportions of mineral particles can be intercepted at different positions of the helix to achieve the purpose of selection The operational factors that affect the spiral concentrator can be adjusted, including feed rate, feed concentration, and flushing water volume. (1) Feeding amount: increases with the increase of helix diameter and helix angle; The finer the particle size of the raw ore and heavy product, the higher the mud content, and the smaller the ore feeding amount. (2) Feed concentration: During beneficiation, it should be lower than during rough beneficiation, usually 11-14%. (3) Rinsing water: Properly controlled, its main function can improve the quality of heavy products; Large water volume and low recovery rate of heavy minerals (1) Advantages: Simple structure, convenient operation and maintenance, high productivity, and great adaptability. Especially when the feeding amount and concentration change within a certain range, the impact on concentrate quality and recovery rate is not significant. (2) Disadvantages: High equipment wear and low ore rich ratio. The selection effect of flaky ore is not good. The spiral concentrator is mainly used for selecting placer minerals, such as iron ore, tin ore, tantalum niobium ore, etc. (3) Application: This machine is generally used for roughing operations, as well as for magnetic separation and flotation tailings to recover heavy ore. The most suitable for processing ore has an upper limit of 3-4mm and a lower limit of 0.07mm. (2) Fan-shaped groove 11. Structure: The shape of the fan-shaped chute is shown in the figure. The wider the feeding end, the closer it is to the discharge end, and the smaller the cross-section. Physical diagram of the chute 2 When the slurry with a solid content of 50-60% enters the chute from the front wide end, it flows towards the shrinking discharge end at the tip. Due to the small inclination of the chute, but the high concentration of the slurry, a very stable ore flow can be achieved. Like other chutes, solid materials are layered proportionally during the flow process, and the underlying heavy minerals rub against the bottom surface of the chute, resulting in a very slow flow rate. Due to the lightness of the aforementioned minerals, the water flow rate is very fast. As the chute gradually contracts, the formed liquid flow layer separates vertically, resulting in an increasing velocity difference. Due to the different discharge speeds of each layer of ore slurry, a fan shape is formed at the discharge end, which can be divided into heavy products, medium products, and light products.
1. Definition: Utilizing the combined effect of mechanical vibration and inclined water flushing to separate mineral particles according to their density. It is one of the most widely used selection methods for fine-grained materials. (1) Classification of shaking table: 1 Mineral sand shakers can be classified based on the particle size of the selected materials (> 0.2mm). Mineral mud shakers (0.2-0.074mm). 2. From a structural perspective, they are divided into (1) 6-S shakers (eccentric connecting rod shakers, Hengyang shakers), (2) Yunxi shakers (cam lever shakers, Guiyang shakers), (3) spring shakers, (4) other new types of shakers, such as suspended multi-layer shakers, centrifugal shakers, etc- S Hengyang Shaker Cloud Tin Shaker (2) Shaker Structure The shaker mainly consists of a bed surface, a frame, a bed head, etc Bed surface: flat plate gently tilting,< 10o, the trapezoidal, rhombic, and longitudinal transmission ends are inclined towards the concentrate end for 1o-2O. The bed is covered with a wear-resistant layer, and there is a ore tank installed on the bed. The rhombic small wooden blocks in the tank regulate the water flow. Motion characteristics: forward acceleration with positive acceleration, backward asymmetric motion with negative acceleration Bedhead: A transmission device that obtains reciprocating asymmetric motion. Usually, there are: eccentric elbow plate rocking mechanism, cam lever rocking mechanism, eccentric spring rocking mechanism, and 3. Rinsing water for the water tank during the beneficiation process of the shaking table. Cover the horizontally inclined bed surface to form a uniform thin layer of inclined water flow. When the slurry enters the reciprocating shaking bed surface (strip or groove), mineral particles are loosely layered according to density under the combined action of gravity, water flow impact, inertia force generated by bed surface shaking, and friction force. At the same time, mineral particles with different densities (or particle sizes) move vertically and horizontally along the bed surface at different speeds. Therefore, their closing speed deviates from the angle of the shaking direction. Finally, mineral particles of different densities are distributed in a fan-shaped pattern on the bed surface to achieve separation (Figure). Separation of mineral particles with different properties on the bed surface Figure 1- Wind zone of mineral particles on the shaking table - Feeding end; 2- Tailings end; 3- Transmission end; The bed strips (or carving grooves) on the 4-concentrate end bed surface can not only enhance water flow pulsation, increase bed looseness, and facilitate the layering and separation of mineral particles, but also clean the small density mineral particles mixed in the high-density ore layer, improving the sorting effect. Layering diagram of mineral particle groups in the bed strip ditch, result diagram of mineral particle separation and layering in the shaking table, actual demonstration diagram of the shaking table sorting belt, shaking table beneficiation workshop 4. Characteristics and Applications of a Shaker 1. Main Advantages: The shaker has clear ore separation zones, convenient operation, reliable operation, and high sorting efficiency. Rough selection and scanning can reach over 80%; When useful minerals and gangue minerals are sufficiently dissociated, the final concentrate and tailings can be obtained at once Main drawbacks: low processing capacity per unit area and large footprint Adaptability: The sorting particle size is generally less than 2mm, which is particularly effective for fine-grained materials ranging from 1 to 0.04mm. Widely used in the selection of rare and precious metal ores such as tungsten, tin, niobium, tantalum, as well as the selection of iron ore. (3) Factors affecting the shaker beneficiation process 1 The asymmetry of shaking table movement is relatively small for coarse materials that are difficult to loosen and easy to move; For fine-grained materials that are easy to loosen but difficult to move, the asymmetry should be significant The stroke and stroke of the shaking table are generally adjusted between 5 and 25mm, with a stroke rate of 250 to 400 times per adjustment between the two. (1) The shaking table for handling coarse sand has low stroke and large stroke; The shaking table stroke for handling fine sand and slime is high and small. (2) When the bed load increases or the ore density increases, low stroke and large stroke should be used, and their combination value should be increased; On the contrary, on the contrary. 3. The flushing water and the horizontal slope flushing water of the bed surface are composed of two parts: feed water and washing water. The size and gradient of the flushing water Co-determination the flow rate of the cross flow. When dealing with coarse materials, both a large amount of water and a large slope are required, which is called "large slope with large water", while when sorting fine materials, the opposite is true. When dealing with the same material, both "large slope and small water" and "small slope and large water" can achieve the same lateral velocity of the ore particles. However, in general, the operating method of "large slope and small water" should be used for rough selection of shaking tables; The shaker used for selection adopts the operation method of "small slope and large water". 4. Feeding properties (1) The feeding amount and concentration should be kept stable during production operations. When the feed particle size is small and the mud content is high, a smaller feed concentration should be controlled. The normal feed concentration is 15% -30%. (2) The optimal particle size composition for ore feeding should be that the particle size of ore particles with high density is smaller than that of ore particles with low density. Therefore, it is necessary to perform hydraulic classification of materials before sorting.
African tantalum and niobium ores are mostly associated with highly viscous soil. Tantalum and niobium ores are granular or massive, with coarse particle size and high grade, making them very easy to beneficiate and purify. We have provided a complete set of tantalum niobium ore beneficiation schemes and tantalum niobium ore gravity equipment to African Nigerian customers, and have achieved good beneficiation results, receiving recognition and praise from customers. The beneficiation of Nigerian tantalum niobium ore adopts a process of washing screening jigging dehydration. The raw ore is sand like, and the individual dissociation between tantalum niobium ore and waste rock is very high. The tantalum niobium ore is accompanied by strong viscous soil impurities. In order to extract tantalum niobium ore from sand ore, it is necessary to first wash the sand ore, remove the viscous soil from the sand ore, and fully expose the tantalum niobium ore particles without being wrapped in the soil. This process uses an energy-saving and efficient cylindrical washing machine, which has a large particle size and high washing efficiency. It is commonly used for tin ore operations that are difficult to select ores or large blocks of ore. Tantalum niobium ore sand ore is washed by the cylindrical washing machine and most of the sticky soil is removed. Then, it enters the screening process to screen the sand ore into three particle sizes: 0-8mm, 8-25mm, and 25-50mm, and then enters the trapezoidal jig and AM30 jig respectively, The 2LTC-912/4 jig performs gravity separation to obtain tantalum niobium ore concentrates and tailings with different particle sizes. The proportion of tantalum niobium ore is relatively large, which is significantly different from that of associated sand ore. Therefore, gravity beneficiation method is used for the rough separation of tantalum niobium ore, and jigs are the best equipment for extracting granular tantalum niobium ore. The tantalum niobium ore concentrate and tailings that have been washed by a jig can be separately dehydrated and stored in a dewatering screen.
African tantalum niobium ore is very easy to beneficiate and purify due to its concentrated distribution of embedded particle size and high dissociation degree with accompanying waste rocks. Especially for granular tantalum niobium ore, the beneficiation process is very simple, and only a series of tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment such as feeders, cylindrical washing machines, vibrating screens, crushers, jigs, and dewatering screens are needed to complete the task of extracting granular tantalum niobium ore from sand ore. The beneficiation process is simple and feasible, and the investment in beneficiation equipment is small, High efficiency, pollution-free, and is the most ideal method for tantalum niobium ore beneficiation.
Tantalum niobium ore in Nigeria, Africa is a placer ore. The raw ore contains Tantalite, Columbite, cassiterite, zircon sand, Ilmenite, monazite and other useful metals. The content of raw ore is low, but the monomer dissociation between useful minerals and waste rock is very high, and the specific gravity difference is large. A high-purity composite concentrate can be obtained by gravity separation with a jig, and then through weak magnetic separation, strong magnetic separation, and electric separation, Complex beneficiation processes such as flotation can yield several different types of gold ore products.
Selection and calculation principles of equipment for beneficiation and purification of tantalum niobium ore in Africa; Selection and calculation of crushing and screening equipment for tantalum niobium ore; Selection and calculation of tantalum niobium ore grinding and classification equipment; Selection and calculation of tantalum niobium ore sorting equipment (including flotation, gravity separation, magnetic separation, and electrical separation equipment); Selection and calculation of dehydration equipment for tantalum niobium ore; Selection and calculation of auxiliary equipment (including feeders, belt conveyors, sand pumps, and cranes); The type, selection, and design calculation of mining warehouse facilities. 5.1 Selection and Calculation Principles of Process Equipment Selection and Calculation is an important aspect of mineral processing engineering design. The suitability of equipment selection directly determines whether the beneficiation process can be successfully achieved. Therefore, when selecting and calculating tantalum niobium ore gravity separation equipment, the following basic principles must be followed: ① the equipment must meet the production capacity requirements and be suitable for the production scale of the beneficiation plant; ② The equipment must adapt to the requirements of the production process characteristics; ③ The equipment must be easy to operate and control, and have reliable performance; ④ Equipment selection should try to use standardized and advanced equipment. Mineral processing equipment is divided into two categories, namely main equipment and auxiliary equipment. Among them, the main equipment includes: crushers, screening machines, grinders, classifiers, flotation machines, jigs, shakers, magnetic separators, thickeners, filters, and dryers. Auxiliary equipment includes belt conveyors, sand pumps, feeders, and cranes. When selecting the main equipment, it is necessary to determine the equipment type and size (i.e. model and specification), as well as the number of equipment. If there are several different types of equipment available for selection in the same operation, it should be determined through technical and economic comparison. The calculation of production capacity of process equipment can be carried out using the following methods: ① Calculate production capacity according to theoretical formulas. The equipment for approximate calculation of production capacity according to theoretical formula includes jaw crusher, rotary crusher, cone crusher, twin roll crusher, hydraulic classifier, Hydrocyclone, hydraulic separator and thickener.
The principles and basis for determining the beneficiation and purification equipment and beneficiation methods of African tantalum niobium ore:
The principles for determining the beneficiation method of African tantalum niobium ore are firstly the washability of the ore when using this beneficiation method, and secondly the economy of using this beneficiation method. In other words, in principle, a beneficiation method with good selectivity and maximum economic benefits must be adopted.
There are various beneficiation methods for tantalum niobium ore in Africa, among which the three most commonly used main beneficiation methods are gravity beneficiation, floating beneficiation, and electromagnetic beneficiation. Because gravity separation is generally relatively simple and the cost is often lower than other beneficiation methods, when determining the beneficiation method, as long as the beneficiation selectivity of the ore is good, the gravity separation plan is always considered first. When the beneficiation selectivity of the ore is poor, that is, it is difficult to obtain ideal beneficiation indicators using gravity separation, it is necessary to consider using other beneficiation methods.
The basis for determining the equipment for beneficiation and purification of African tantalum niobium ore is mainly based on the properties of the raw ore, including the density and hardness of various minerals in the ore, the embedding particle size and occurrence state of useful minerals, the surface physical and chemical properties and electromagnetic properties of various minerals, and the complexity of mineral composition. The practical experience of beneficiation in similar mines and the research results of tantalum niobium beneficiation by industry peers are undoubtedly valuable for reference.
The products produced include: beneficiation equipment for metal elements such as gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum, lead, zinc, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel, as well as non-metallic beneficiation equipment for quartz, garnet, mica fluorite ore, etc. From experimental equipment to conventional national standard production lines: crushing equipment, grinding, screening, selection, drying, filtering, and more, a one-stop flow production line